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Grand Junction
River City
City
City of Grand Junction, Colorado
Grand-junction-skyline.jpg
Nickname(s): Junction, River City, Colorado's Wine Country, Capital of the Western Slope, Ol' Grandy
Location in Mesa County and the State of Colorado
Location in Mesa County and the State of Colorado
Grand Junction is located in USA
Grand Junction
Grand Junction
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 39°04′N 108°34′W / 39.067°N 108.567°W / 39.067; -108.567Coordinates: 39°04′N 108°34′W / 39.067°N 108.567°W / 39.067; -108.567
Country United States
State Colorado
County Mesa[1]
Incorporated July 22, 1882[2]
Named for Confluence of Grand River and Gunnison River
Government
 • Type Home Rule Municipality
 • Mayor Bill Pitts since May 2, 2012
 • City Manager Rich Englehart since June 20, 2012
Area
 • City 38.6 sq mi (100.0 km2)
 • Land 38.2 sq mi (99.0 km2)
 • Water 0.4 sq mi (1.0 km2)
 • Metro 3,341.11 sq mi (8,653 km2)
Elevation 4,593 ft (1,397 m)
Population (2011 estimate)
 • City 58,704
 • Density 1,500/sq mi (590/km2)
 • Metro 147,083
 • Metro density 44/sq mi (17/km2)
Time zone MST (UTC-7)
 • Summer (DST) MDT (UTC-6)
ZIP codes[3] 81501-81507
Area code(s) 970
GNIS feature ID 0204662
Highways I-70, U.S. Highway 6 , U.S. Highway 50 , CO SH 340, CO SH 141, CO SH 139
Website City of Grand Junction
Fifteenth most populous Colorado city

The most populous city of Western Colorado

The City of Grand Junction is the largest city in western Colorado. It is a city with a council–manager government form that is the county seat and the most populous city of Mesa County, Colorado, United States.[4] Grand Junction is situated 247 miles (398 km) west-southwest of the Colorado State Capitol, Denver. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 58,566.[5] Grand Junction is the 15th most populous city in the State of Colorado and the most populous city on the Colorado Western Slope. Grand Junction serves as a major commercial and transportation hub within the large area between the Green River and the Continental Divide. It is the principal city of the Grand Junction Metropolitan Statistical Area which had a population of 146,723 in 2010 census.

The city is located along the Colorado River, where it receives the Gunnison River from the south. The name "Grand" refers to the historical Grand River, which was renamed the upper Colorado River in 1921, and the word "Junction" is from the joining of the Colorado and Gunnison rivers. Hence, Grand Junction has been given the nickname "River City". The city sits near the midpoint of a 30-mile (48 km) arcing valley, known as the Grand Valley, a major fruit-growing region, historically home to the Ute people and settled by white farmers in the 1880s. In recent years, several wineries have been established in the area as well. The Colorado National Monument, a unique series of canyons and mesas, overlooks the city on the west, while most of the area is surrounded by public lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Book Cliffs are a prominent series of cliffs that define the northern side of the Grand Valley. Interstate 70 connects the city eastward to Glenwood Springs and Denver and westward to Green River, Utah; Salt Lake City (via Interstate 70 and U.S Route 6); and Las Vegas (via Interstate 70 and Interstate 15)

The Country Jam Ranch is located near Grand Junction just north of I-70 at the Mack exit. This is a permanent festival site built for music festivals, including Country Jam, an event that has been held since 1992 and one that draws thousands of country music fans to the area.[6]

The Grand Junction area has turned into a major mountain biking destination, with many bikers coming from the Front Range of Colorado, the Salt Lake City area, and even as far away as California to enjoy the area's abundant single-track trails. Two prominent trails among others are the Tabeguache and Kokopelli trails, the latter running from near Loma all the way to Moab, Utah. Fruita, Colorado with its 18 Road trail system is within 10 miles of the city and has become a major mountain biking destination.

History

To the northeast, the weathered Little Bookcliffs cut across the skyline. To the southeast soars the Grand Mesa, the world's largest flat-topped mountain. The photogenic canyons and monoliths of the Colorado National Monument form a western wall. In between the three natural barriers sprawls Western Colorado's Grand Valley. Cut out of the rugged terrain by the Colorado and Gunnison rivers, the valley was also one of the last locales in the lower 48 states to be settled by pioneer Americans.

The region's colorful history stretches much further back in time. A little-known aboriginal civilization known as the Fremont first moved into the area about 200 A.D. Living in pit-houses, eating insects, small animals and sparse produce from tiny gardens, the mysterious Fremont left Western Colorado about 1300 A.D. Roughly 100 years later, the first bands of wandering Utes moved into the region. The various Ute tribes eventually called much of Colorado and Utah home until forced onto reservations in 1881. Both Indian groups left behind numerous examples of colorful rock paintings and canyon carvings. Some of the unexplained rock art can still be spotted today.

Until 1821, the Grand Valley was part of the kingdom of Spain. And during the early and mid 1700's, hardy Spanish and Mexican soldiers, explorers and priests poked and prodded through the region. Some were looking for gold, others seeking new trails to Spanish California. Most were not too successful.

At first, trail-blazing American mountain men weren't very successful either. Hoping to trap valuable beaver or trade with Ute Indians, most of the Americans were kept out of the territory by jealous Spanish officials. However, when Western Colorado became part of Mexico in 1821, the mountains were suddenly wide open to trappers, traders and wandering buck-skinners of the U.S.

A few of the same mountain men to first see Colorado's Western Slope later helped guide U.S. Army expeditions and Government Surveying parties through the region. Some of the Old West's best known explorers - Kit Carson, John Charles Fremont and Capt. John Gunnison - all passed through the Grand Valley in the 1840s and 1850s.

In spite of anti-Indian politicians, a large part of Western Colorado remained Ute Indian Territory until September 1881. The region was opened to homesteaders, ranchers and town builders the very day the Utes were being forced out by Army troopers. By the time Kansas politician and real estate developer George Crawford decided the unclaimed Grand Valley would make a good town site, Denver, Colorado already had a population of 50,000. And Grand Junction, Colorado was just being born!

Geography

Grand Junction is located at 39°03′53″N 108°33′52″W / 39.06472°N 108.56444°W / 39.06472; -108.56444 (39.080531, −108.559097)[7]. It is about 4,597 feet (1,401 m) above sea level in what is called "high desert" country.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 38.6 square miles (100.0 km2), with 38.2 square miles (99.0 km2) of it land, and 0.39 square miles (1.0 km2), or 0.87% of it water.[8]

Climate

Grand Junction looking north, Winter January 2011

The downtown area displays a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), almost grading into an arid type. Grand Junction sits in a large area of "high desert" lands in Western Colorado. Winters are cold and dry, with a January mean temperature of 27.4 °F (−2.6 °C). Due to its location west of the Rockies, Grand Junction does not receive as much influence from the Chinook winds as locations in Colorado east of the Front Range, yet it does receive protection from the Arctic masses that can settle to the east of the Rockies. This is illustrated by the fact that from December to February, highs reach 50 °F (10 °C) only 18 days.[9] Lows drop to 0 °F (−17.8 °C) or below on 2.9 nights per year.[9] Snowfall is low compared to much of the rest of the state, averaging 19.1 inches (49 cm) per season; only once in the entire period of record dating to 1893, has observed 10 inches (25 cm) in a calendar day, though the median is 6.3 inches (16.0 cm), and moreover, snow cover is intermittent.[9] Snow is greatest in December and January. Spring warming is gradual but quickens when nearing June; the average last freeze date is April 24. Summer is hot but dry, with a July mean temperature of 78.2 °F (25.7 °C). Grand Junction averages 64.5 days a year with temperatures at 90 °F (32 °C) or above, and an average 6.5 days attaining 100 °F (38 °C) or more.[10] Autumn cooling is rapid, with the average first freeze date being October 15. The area receives little precipitation year-round, averaging 9.42 inches (239.3 mm), with no real seasonal spike. Sunshine hours are abundant, even in winter, and total just over 3200 hours per year, or 73% of the possible total.[11]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890 2,030
1900 3,503 72.6%
1910 7,754 121.4%
1920 8,665 11.7%
1930 10,247 18.3%
1940 12,479 21.8%
1950 14,504 16.2%
1960 18,694 28.9%
1970 20,170 7.9%
1980 27,956 38.6%
1990 29,034 3.9%
2000 41,986 44.6%
2010 58,566 39.5%
Est. 2011 58,704 [15] 0.2%
U.S. Decennial Census
Book Cliffs and Mt. Garfield (right), near Grand Junction

As of the census[16] of 2000, there were 41,986 people, 17,865 households, and 10,540 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,362.6 people per square mile (526.2/km²). There were 18,784 housing units at an average density of 609.6 per square mile (235.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 91.78% White, 0.60% African American, 0.94% Native American, 0.76% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 3.81% from other races, and 1.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.86% of the population.

There were 17,865 households out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.0% were non-families. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had one living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.84.

In the city the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.6 males.

The population figures are for Grand Junction only; the city abuts smaller towns and unincorporated county areas which contribute to area commerce.

The median income for a household in the city was $33,152, and the median income for a family was $43,851. Males had a median income of $31,685 versus $22,804 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,692. About 7.5% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.8% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.

Economy

Economic history

From the time settlers arrived in the 1880s until the 1960s, two of the main economic activities in the region were farming and cattle raising. Retail sales have been important to the economy for decades (e.g., gasoline, and hunting and fishing related sales), and uranium mining-related activities have also been significant.[17] Grand Junction was home to the Climax Uranium Mill, a now decommissioned mill that provided uranium ore to the US Atomic Energy Commission. Education and healthcare have been important to the economy of the area, especially since the 1950s, with Colorado Mesa University and St. Mary's Hospital as leading employers in these fields. Vast oil shale reserves were known to exist near Parachute, Colorado in the Piceance Basin. The oil embargoes of the 1970s and high gas prices resulted in major financial interest in the region. Exxon purchased rights and used Grand Junction as its seat of operations.

Grand Junction and the surrounding Grand Valley were prosperous in the 1970s and early 1980s largely because of the impact of oil shale development. The United States, western Colorado in particular, has the largest known concentration of oil shale in the world (according to the Bureau of Land Management) and holds an estimated 800 gigabarrels of recoverable oil, enough to meet U.S. demand for oil at current levels for 110 years. Known as the "Rock That Burns" the shale can be mined and processed to produce oil, although in the past it was significantly more expensive than conventional oil. Sustained prices above $95 per barrel, however, may make extraction economically attractive in the coming years (see Oil Shale Economics). ExxonMobil was forced to pull out of the region because of lower oil prices, which led to economic hardship in the region.

The economic bust, known as "Black Sunday" (May 2, 1982) to the locals, started with a phone call from the President of Exxon to the then Governor of Colorado, Richard Douglas Lamm, stating that Exxon would cut its losses while retaining mining rights to the (then and currently) uneconomic oil. The economic bust was felt statewide, as Exxon had invested more than 5 billion USD in the state. Colorado historian Tom Noel observed "I think that was a definite turning point, and it was a reminder that we were a boom-and-bust state...There were parallels to the silver crash of 1893."[18]

By 2008, the economy of Grand Junction appeared to be more diverse and stable than it had been in previous decades. Major contributors to the economy were health care, tourism, agriculture, livestock, and energy mining (gas and oil). Major energy companies had once again invested large amounts of money due to increases in oil and natural gas prices (such as in the years 2005–2008). However, a major drop (in the summer of 2008) of market natural gas prices led to reduced gas well drilling and related capital expenditures in the area, significantly slowing the Grand Junction economy in 2009. Reports given in 2009 suggested that Grand Junction had once again been hard-hit economically, with one report by April 2010 listing the area as having had the largest percentage drop in employment of any "small city" in the entire United States.[19]

By 2008, Grand Junction was being discovered by the "nation's elite business and leisure travelers" for private jet travel, with nearby Powderhorn Resort and other ski resorts a major attraction.[20]

Top employers

According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[21] the top employers are:

# Employer Percentage of Total Employees Number of Employees
1 Mesa County Valley School District 51 3.53% 2554
2 City Market 2.29% 1656
3 St. Mary's Hospital 2.07% 1494
4 State of Colorado 1.35% 973
5 Mesa County 1.33% 962
6 Halliburton 1.18% 855
7 Walmart 1.07% 775
8 City of Grand Junction 0.86% 625
9 VA Medical Center 0.83% 600
10 Community Hospital 0.81% 583

Notable residents

Grand Junction City Hall
  • Owen Aspinall, former Governor of American Samoa, was born in Grand Junction, the son of long-time U.S Representative Wayne N. Aspinall
  • Charles L. Fletcher, architect and interior designer; owner of Charles Fletcher Design
  • Vance Johnson, former NFL wide receiver
  • Annabelle Craft Moss (1921– ), an aviator who won the Congressional Gold Medal, and pilot in World War II with the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs)
  • Rick Schroder owned a home outside of Grand Junction during the mid to late 1990s
  • Dalton Trumbo (1905–1976), Academy Award-winning screenwriter (Exodus, Spartacus, Roman Holiday, Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo), novelist (Johnny Got His Gun) and member of the Hollywood Ten. His childhood home was located at 1124 Gunnison Avenue in Grand Junction. He is honored with a Dalton Trumbo Free Speech Fountain on the campus of his alma mater, the University of Colorado. His first novel, Eclipse (1934) was set in a fictional town based on an unflattering Grand Junction, and many of the characters are identifiable as community leaders. A statue commemorating the loved and hated Trumbo is on Main Street in front of the Avalon Theater.[22]
  • Walter Walker, political leader and publisher made Grand Junction his home for many years. For three months in 1932, he served as one of Colorado's US Senators, and was publisher and primary owner of the Grand Junction Daily Sentinel newspaper.

Notable businesses

Education

Museum of Western Colorado Sterling T. Smith Educational Tower

K-12

The Mesa Valley School District No. 51 (website) provides comprehensive K-12 public education to the Grand Junction area. School District 51 operates five high schools:

In addition, the district operates numerous middle, elementary, and other types of schools. District 51 partners with the Western Colorado Community College (WCCC) to operate a vocational school, owned and operated by Colorado Mesa University. The WCCC was formerly named, and is still commonly called, UTEC.

Colleges and universities

Colorado Mesa University, a public, four-year, liberal arts institution, serves as the primary provider of higher education on the Western slope from its campus in central Grand Junction. This growing campus has an average enrollment of just under 9,000 students and offers a variety of degrees, including a Masters in Business Administration, Educational Leadership, and ESOL. The university has particularly strong science, art, music, nursing, and kinesiology programs.

Sports

Grand Junction's Colorado National Monument was home to a stage in the Coors Classic known as "The Tour of the Moon" due to the Monument's unique landscape. Since 1958, the JUCO World Series has been playing at Suplizio Field. Most recently at Suplizio Field, a new professional Minor League Baseball team affiliate of the Colorado Rockies in the Pioneer Baseball League came from Casper and are known as the Grand Junction Rockies. Adjacent to Suplizio Field, Stocker Stadium is home to the semi-professional Grand Junction Gladiators football team. Both Suplizio Field and Stocker Stadium also host Colorado Mesa University as well as School District 51 sporting events.

Transportation

Grand Junction Regional Airport (formerly Walker Field Airport) serves as the major airport in the area. The airport is located in north Grand Junction on Horizon Drive. As of 2011, two-way flights to Denver, Salt Lake City, Las Vegas, Dallas, Phoenix, Los Angeles, and Houston were available.

Amtrak station in Grand Junction, CO

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Grand Junction Station, operating its California Zephyr daily in both directions between Chicago and Emeryville, California, across the bay from San Francisco.

The Grand Valley Transit (GVT) is a regional transit system serving the grand valley. It operates 11 bus routes in the area as well as a "dial-a-ride" service.

Major highways

Rankings

Grand Junction, Colorado has placed number six in Outdoor Life's 2012 list of The 35 Best Hunting and Fishing Towns in the US, number twelve in Forbes 2012 list of The Best Small Places For Business and Careers, number five in The New York Times 2011 list of Where to Live to Avoid a Natural Disaster, and number seven in Tourism-Review.com's 2009 list of the 8 Sunniest Cities in the USA.[23]

Media

Radio

Call Sign Frequency City of License Licensee Format
KMSA 91.3 FM Grand Junction Colorado Mesa University AAA
KMGJ 93.1 FM Grand Junction MBC Grand Broadcasting, Inc. Top 40 (CHR)/Contemporary Hit Radio
KKVT 100.7 FM Grand Junction MBC Grand Broadcasting, Inc. Country
KLFV 90.3 FM Grand Junction Educational Media Foundation Christian Contemporary
KMOZ-FM 92.3 FM Grand Junction MBC Grand Broadcasting, Inc. Adult Hits
KGJN-LP 106.7 FM Grand Junction Colorado, State Of, Telecom Servs News Talk Information
KJOL 620 AM Grand Junction United Ministries Christian Contemporary
KCIC 88.5 FM Grand Junction Pear Park Baptist Schools Religious
KBKL 107.9 FM Grand Junction Townsquare Media Group Oldies
KAFM 88.1 FM Grand Junction Grand Valley Public Radio Co, Inc Variety
KEXO 1230 AM Grand Junction Townsquare Media Group Regional Mexican/Talk
KNZZ 1100 AM Grand Junction MBC Grand Broadcasting, Inc. News/Talk
KMXY 104.3 FM Grand Junction Townsquare Media Group Hot Adult Contemporary
KPRN 89.5 FM Grand Junction Public Broadcasting of Colorado, Inc. Public/News/Talk
KTMM 1340 AM Grand Junction MBC Grand Broadcasting, Inc. Sports/Talk
KAAI 98.5 FM Palisade, Colorado Educational Media Foundation Christian Rock
KMZK (FM) 106.9 FM Clifton Charles D. Hall
KEKB 99.9 FM Fruita Townsquare Media Group Country
KRZX 106.1 FM Redlands Cochise Media Licenses LLC
KZKS 105.3 FM Rifle, Colorado Western Slope Communications Classic Hits
KNOZ 97.7 FM Orchard Mesa Paul Varecha All-News Radio
KTUN 93.5 FM New Castle, Colorado Wildcat Communications Spanish Hits
KKNN 95.1 FM Delta, Colorado Townsquare Media Group Active Rock
KSTR-FM 96.1 FM Montrose, Colorado MBC Grand Broadcasting Classic Rock
KUBC 580 AM Montrose, Colorado Cherry Creek Radio News/Talk

Newspapers

Grand Junction is serviced by two newspapers, the Daily Sentinel (daily) and the Grand Junction Free Press. The Grand Junction area also receives newspaper influence from the Front Range such as the Denver Post.

Television

Grand Junction has CBS, NBC, and ABC television station affiliates under the call signs of KREX-TV (Channel 5), KKCO (Channel 11), and KJCT (Channel 8) respectively. Also, Grand Junction has a Fox (Channel 4) affiliate station under the call sign of KFQX that receives news from the Denver FOX affiliate, KDVR (Channel 31) at 9 pm.

Venues

Grand Junction's downtown is home to the historic Avalon Theatre which hosts both movies and live entertainment from documentaries like March of the Penguins to live performers such as "Weird Al" Yankovic, Wilco, Colbie Caillat, Chris Isaak and Brian Regan.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Official records for Grand Junction were kept at downtown from January 1893 to December 1899 and at Grand Junction Regional Airport since January 1900. For more information, see ThreadEx

References

  1. ^ "Active Colorado Municipalities". State of Colorado, Department of Local Affairs. Retrieved 2007-09-01. 
  2. ^ "Colorado Municipal Incorporations". State of Colorado, Department of Personnel & Administration, Colorado State Archives. 2004-12-01. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  3. ^ "ZIP Code Lookup" (JavaScript/HTML). United States Postal Service. Retrieved September 24, 2007. 
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  5. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Grand Junction city, Colorado". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved November 22, 2011. 
  6. ^ Grand Junction Area Chamber of Commerce
  7. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  8. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Grand Junction city, Colorado". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved November 22, 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c d "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  10. ^ "GRAND JUNCTION WALKER AP, CO". In Climatography of the United States No. 20 1971–2000. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service.
  11. ^ "Climatological Normals of Grand Junction". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2010-05-18. 
  12. ^ "Station Name: CO GRAND JUNCTION WALKER FLD". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-29. 
  13. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for GRAND JUNCTION/WALKER FIELD CO 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  14. ^ "Monthly Averages for Grand Junction, CO – Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  15. ^ "Census.gov". Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved August 6, 2012. 
  16. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  17. ^ History Timeline. Museum of Western Colorado
  18. ^ Richard Williamson (October 5, 1999). "Oil shale collapse preserved scenic vistas". Denver Rocky Mountain News. Retrieved June 3, 2009. 
  19. ^ The Adams Group, Coloradoeconomy.com, "Today's Economy". April 23, 2010. Retrieved 5-12-2010
  20. ^ "Colo. gets two spots on luxury-travel list". – Denver Business Journal. – January 11, 2008. – Retrieved 2008-01-12
  21. ^ "City of Grand Junction CAFR" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-08-12. 
  22. ^ Nichols, Josh (2007-10-14) Trumbo sculpture unveiled. Post Independent. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
  23. ^ "Facts and Rankings – Grand Junction Economic Partnership". Grand Junction Economic Partnership. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 

External links

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